Most individuals have struggled for a long time while trying to understand personality, and several theories have been established to describe how personality grows and its influence on behavior. One of the theories developed was suggested by a psychologist known as Raymond Cattrel.

Raymond developed a taxonomy of sixteen different personality characters that would be used to explain and describe personal differences between individual’s personalities.

Raymond’s personality features have been added in the 16- Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) that is broadly used nowadays. 16PF is used for professional counseling in vocational and education guidance.

In business, 16PF is used for individual choice, particularly for selecting managers. The questionnaire is also essential for clinical diagnosis and to arrange therapy by assessing adjustment, behavioral, and anxiety issues.

Raymond Cattrell

Raymond was born in 1905 and perceived the advent of numerous twentieth-century discoveries like telephones, electricity, airplanes, and vehicles.

He was motivated by these inventions and was eager to use the scientific techniques used to make such innovations to personality and the human mind. He believed personality was just some untestable and unknowable mystery.

Personality was something that could only be organized and studied. Through scientific research, human behaviors and characteristics could then be foretold rooted in original character traits.

Raymond had earlier worked with psychologist Charles Spearman, who popular for his inventive work in the field of statistics. Raymond would later utilize the factor analysis methods invented by Charles to develop his personality taxonomy.

The character method to personality

Psychologists have debated for a long time about precisely how personality should be described or defined. One of these significant notions is referred to as the character theory of personality. Human personality is a collection of numerous broad dispositions or traits according to the trait theory of personality.

The sixteen-personality factor

Recently, Raymond analyzed this list and whittled it down to one hundred and seventy-one features, mainly be removing uncommon and redundant words. He was then capable of using the statistical method referred to as factor analysis to recognize characters that were associated with one another.

The technique of factor analysis can be significant when looking at large amounts of data and information in order to identify the most important and influential elements. Using this technique, he was able to carve his list to sixteen major personality features.

According to Raymond, there is a range of character traits. In other words, every individual has all of these sixteen character traits to a particular degree, although they may be low in some traits and high in others. Although all individuals have some degree of inattentiveness, for instance, some individuals may be very practical while others are very imaginative.

The following is a list of the personality traits that explain some of the evocative words used for each of the sixteen personality dimensions explained by Raymond.

  1. Dominance: submissive versus forceful
  2. Tension: relaxed versus inpatient
  3. Self-reliance: dependent versus self-sufficient
  4. Reasoning: concrete versus abstract
  5. Perfectionism: undisciplined versus controlled
  6. Vigilance: trusting versus suspicious
  7. Social boldness: shy versus uninhibited
  8. Openness to change: attached to the familiar versus flexible
  9. Rule-consciousness: non-conforming versus conforming
  10. Warmth: reserved versus the outgoing
  11. Sensitivity: tough-minded versus tender-hearted
  12. Apprehension: confident versus worried
  13. Emotional stability: high-strung versus calm
  14. Privateness: discrete versus open
  15. Liveliness: restrained versus spontaneous
  16. Abstractedness: practical versus imaginative

Raymond also established an assessment rooted in these sixteen personality factors. The examination is referred to as the 16PF personality questionnaire and is constantly used today, particularly in marital counselling, career counselling, and in a company for employee selection and testing.

The examination is a collection of forced-selection queries in which the respondent has to choose one among the three diverse alternatives. A variety then represents character traits, and the person's score falls at some point in the continuum between the lowest and the highest extremes.

The paper and pencil version of the examination takes around thirty-five to fifty minutes to finish, while the computer-based questionnaire takes around half an hour. Once you finish, the grades can be interpreted using various systems, based upon the examination is being used.

Some of the analytical reports take clinical methods looking at character, while others aim at topics such as leadership potential, career choice, and teamwork development. Numerous studies have seconded the examination’s validity, including its application in personality assessment and career development.

You can get a free version of the 16PF questionnaire online through the Open-Source Psychometrics Project. The examination is for learning purposes only and should not be used for medical diagnosis and professional advice.

Contact a mental health specialist or career analysis service to have a career administer the examination and infer your results.


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